the Ancient Elixir
The Story of the World's
Oldest Drug Culture
Image: By Punkerslut,
Made with graphics by Deutsche Bundespost and Ravenhurst
October 7, 2010
October 10, 2010
Sit Down, Have Something to Drink
"How amiable this solitude, this silence, this darkness! No objects now importune the ravished soul. The thought, the sense, all full of nothing but our mutual happiness, wholly possess the mind, and convey a pleasure, which deluded mortals vainly seek for in every other enjoyment."
--David Hume, 1777
"Essays Moral, Political, Literary," Essay: "The Epicurean"
An Indian bartender slides a mug across the counter to you, filled with a white liquid and topped with a bubbly froth. "पीने का आनंद लें," the Indian man tells you in Hindi, or as his young daughter translates for you in English, "Enjoy the drink." The bartender has also placed small, gray-brown envelope has been placed beside the glass. Looking in it, you find a green, plant-like substance, but your attention is drawn to the beverage. A slice of melon is wedged on the glass, like a martini with a lemon. Its smell is sweet and creamy, with a scent of citrus fruit as well as Indian spices, like cumin, ginger, and even green peppers.
With a gulp, a quarter of the drink makes it into your stomach, leaving a thick coating across your lips and mouth. You have now experienced भांग, or in English, "Bhang" -- an ancient, Indian drink made from the ingredients of Marijuana. According to thousands of years of Hindu practice, you will experience the eternal, the infinite, and the divine. You'll walk across an ethereal bridge into a realm designed and built by the supreme beings of existence. Just as you finish the elixir, you notice the brightening of colors, the soothing of senses, and the attending interest and curiosity in the world around you. There aren't any gates into another the divine universe yet, but then you remember that you still have the envelope.
Bhang is popularly prepared in two ways, through the beverage and through the pipe. By drinking or by smoking, there is a way to access that divine brilliance. It is still called Bhang, in either form. The smoked substance is a hash, which is a a ground-up combination of leaves, flower buds, and especially potent resin that comes from the Marijuana plant. You fill an innately-designed, hand-carved, wooden pipe with the substance, breaking up the hard chunk and getting sticky substance on your fingertips. Applying the fire and the small pebble-like pieces suddenly turn to liquid and boil, with the flaming steam and smoke and vapor traveling through the pipe and into your lungs, and through your lungs to your mind. A spark of intoxication turns into a wave, and then the universe opens up its secrets to you.
Image: Photograph of an Indian Bhang Seller by Tom Maisey,
Released under the
"Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic" License
"...pinning a butterfly: the husk is captured, but the flying is lost. Why not be content with simply experiencing it?"
--Lao Tzu, ~600 BC
"Hua Hu Ching," Part 6
All About Bhang Today
"Not without a slight shudder at the danger, I often perceive how near I had come to admitting into my mind the details of some trivial affair- the news of the street; and I am astonished to observe how willing men are to lumber their minds with such rubbish- to permit idle rumors and incidents of the most insignificant kind to intrude on ground which should be sacred to thought. Shall the mind be a public arena, where the affairs of the street and the gossip of the tea-table chiefly are discussed? Or shall it be a quarter of heaven itself- an hypaethral temple, consecrated to the service of the gods?"
--Henry David Thoreau, 1863
"Life Without Principle"
"Cannabis resin in India is either eaten or drunk in a milk-based beverage, both of which are called bhang," [*1] to quote the Botanist Jean H. Langenheim. In Hinduism, Bhang is often used during the celebration of Holi, where it is consumed by almost everyone -- those as young as children and as old as grandparents, those as respected as mayors and as revered as religious teachers. According to the Society for the Confluence of Festivals in India (SCFI)...
"Culled from the leaves and buds of cannabis - the very intoxicating bhang helps to escalate the spirit of holi - a festival which does not recognise any restrictions. Lip smacking thandai, pakoras and vadas, all having bhang as a very essential ingredient, are savoured by all on the day....
"Associated with Lord Shiva, hemp plant is regarded holy by the Hindus. There is even a belief that to meet someone carrying bhang is an omen of success. And, if longing for hemp plant foretells happiness, to see it in dreams ensures prosperity for a person in future. Also, walking underfoot a holy bhang leaf spells doom for a person." [*2]
A reference like Encyclopedia Britannica provides a completely incorrect definition of Bhang, stating that it is not made out of the Marijuana flowers. [*3] This is contradicted by virtually every other resource on the subject. Quoting the SCFI again, "Anywhere on the ghats [an area near the bay] one can find large number of men engaged in the process of preparing bhang. Using mortar and a pestle, the buds and leaves of Cannabis are squashed and ground into a green paste." [*4] Encyclopedia Britannica calls Bhang "the least potent of the cannabis preparations used in India." (Maybe their editors didn't try enough?) But quoting a 2006 Encyclopedia of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh by Gupta Om...
"Bhang is a derivative of the leaf and flower of a female cannabis plant. It is used for making beverages and sometimes is smoked. Bhang Ki Thandi is a drink popular in many parts of North India which is made by mixing bhang with thandi, a drink prepared with a mixture of almonds, certain spices, milk and sugar. Cultivation of cannabis is illegal in many parts of the country, but bhang is widely available, and there is only a mild social stigma attached to drinking of Bhang Ki Thandi.
"Bhang Lassi is another well-known drink made with bhang. Although it is rarely printed in menus, some restaurants in India and Thailand, predominantly the tourist attracting areas such as Rajasthan, serve Bhang Lassi; lassi, which is a yogurt and iced-water beverage, laced with bhang. It is commonly dubbed 'special lassi.'" [*5]
There is one misconception about Bhang that appears almost constantly throughout Western literature: it is often assumed simply to be the drink, where in smoked form, it is typically just called "Ganja" by our scientific journals. An well-trained Hindu would probably respond, "Ganja is Bhang, and a drink becomes Bhang by putting Ganja into it, even though the Ganja itself is still just Bhang." Quoting the Botanist Meenu Pooja in a 2008 work...
"...sinsemilla (unfertilized, or without seeds) marijuana is one of the strongest forms. In India Cannabis is taken in the form of bhang, a milk-based beverage concocted with ground Cannabis leaves, sugar, and an assortment of spices. Bhang is widely drunk and is commonly offered as a gesture of hospitality." [*6]
While milk or yogurt are often the primary ingredients for Bhang, as a drink it is often consumed simply as a tea, as well. Thomas Nordegren, writing for an encyclopedia on drug abuse, makes the same mistake in defining Bhang as the drink. At least he does point out that it is often a synonym for "Marijuana," Bhang is actually a hashish preparation, or ground-up and prepared Marijuana. Nordegren tells us of the process for the drink in his definition...
"1. Cannabis beverage, common in India and Pakistan. Marijuana is boiled and thereafter squeezed several times in a cloth. The result is an extract, bhang drunk as tea or mixed with milk, often sweetened with sugar or honey. In the countryside in India and Pakistan this beverage is still being served in some restaurants.
"2. Colloquial term for marijuana." [*7]
In parts of India, child labor is still used, and drug addiction is very common among the working children. But there is a trend to this drug addiction. Children are divided into three groups, which have fairly defined boundaries: alcohol users, heroin users, and finally, cannabis users. While it is typical for heroin users to use bhang, those who enjoy cannabis typically have no use for hard drugs. To quote Vimala Veeraraghavan...
"... it is seen that those who are involved in heavy work appear to take, in addition to alcohol, all other drugs like smack, opium, etc. On the other hand, those who are doing relatively lighter work appear to take more alcohol or cannabis and a combination of these two drugs rather than hard core drugs like smack, opium and mandrax [Barbituates]." [*8]
There is no irony today that organizations who oppose drugs are typically funded by those who rely on "heavy work" by child laborers. On the one hand, to preach about the immorality of intoxication, and on the other, to profit from the situations that produce this intoxication. Such is the position of the United States government. "Parents: The Anti-Drug" is funded by the National Association of Independent Life Brokerage Agencies (financial cartel), the Newspaper Association of America (yellow journalism), the Soap and Detergent Association (industrial cartel), the Society for Human Resource Management (union busters), and the United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce (all of the above). [*9]
Every single one of these organizations relies on foreign slavery of children, such as those in India or China. If they wanted to abolish hard drug use around the globe, it would take one swift blow -- the repossession of the world's productive capital by the working people. Those who oppose drug-use, though, oppose wealth of the body as much as wealth of the mind. The conditions that make children use heroin will have to go on, because it is necessary "to serve the stockholders." Children in chains may not want to live sober, but they work for cheap, and that's good for profits.
Our revolution must be the exact opposite: we love drugs and we hate slavery. Bhang, as a drug culture that isolates itself against heroin, may very well serve to save the lives of some of those children. The Indian government's response to Bhang is similar to the established policies of Statists and Capitalists. First, it outlawed the cultivation of Cannabis for the use of Bhang, and second, it copyrighted Bhang as intellectual property of the nation of India. [*10]
Image: By Rusty Shackleford,
Made with graphics by Michael Ivanov,
Released under the
"Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic" License
Bhang, One or Two Centuries Ago
"...he who remembers that he is by nature a rational being, and a member of society; that to preserve himself, is to preserve his reason, and to preserve the best feelings of his heart; will encounter with none of these inconveniencies; and in the care of himself, will find subjects only of satisfaction and triumph."
--Adam Ferguson, 1767
"An Essay on the History of Civil Society," Part 1, Section VIII
Use of Bhang in India goes back for thousands of years. There are reports of Cannabis for medical use going back to the 18th century, where the Muslim text Makhzan-ul-Adwiya makes the following description of Cannabis...
"The leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain; the juice of the leaves applied to the head as a wash, removes dandriff and vermin; drops of the juice thrown into the ear allay pain and destroy worms or insects. It checks diarrhea, is useful in gonorrhea, restrains seminal secretions, and is diuretic. The bark has a similar effect." [*11]
This short selection was quoted from an issue of the American Druggist in 1884. The editors also relay many other of the medicinal properties of Cannabis described by the Arab author of Makhzan...
"The leaves are made into Sherbet and conserves for intoxicating purposes. The properties of hemp are described as cold and dry in the third degree, that is, stimulant and sedative, imparting at first a gentle reviving heat, and then a refrigerant effect, the drug at first exhilarates, improves the complexion, excites the imagination, increases the appetite, and acts as an aphrodisiac; afterwards its sedative effects are observed...
"The powder of the leaves is recommended as an external application to fresh wounds and sores, and is used to promote granulation. A poultice of the whole plant is applied to local inflammations, erysipelas, neuralgia, etc." [*12]
One of the earliest investigators of the substance was the British scientist Sir William Jackson Hooker, Regius Professor of Botany at Glasgow University and the first director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. In Volume six of his Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany,< he wrote this in 1854...
"Bhang is not smoked, but is ground up with water into a pulp, and mixed with other ingredients, so as to make a thick drink, called Subzee, reputed to be cooling, and highly conducive to health; people accustomed to use it enjoy excellent health, in fact never get sick." [*13]
Hooker even went to so far as to suggest that Bhang, as a drink, may be from an altogether different plant than the one that Ganja, or "Marijuana," is from. In fact, production of Bhang had reached a very sophisticated state by the time Western Imperialists had conquered the continent. Charas is a hand-made hashish that has been available for a long time, though not as long as Bhang, but there is a traditional method for producing the Charas hashish from the Bhang. According to Baden H. Powell in a project commissioned by the British government, Hand-Book of the Economic Products of the Punjab in 1868...
"There is a kind of charras called 'garda' which is much in use, and of this again there are three sorte— 'surkha,' 'bhangra,' and 'khaki.' When the bhang has been gathered and placed in a store-house, as soon as it is dry, persons go in with their faces covered with a thin cloth, which enables them to breathe without inhaling the dust which results from the process they perform. Next the heaps of dry bhang are covered over with a fine cloth, and the operators putting their hands under the cloth, begin stirring about the bhang, and making hay of it. Soon a fine dust flies out, and filling the room, settles down on the surface of the cloth spread over the heaps. When all the dust has been shaken out and settled on the cloth, the cloth is itself taken out and shaken: a dust falls down, which is of the best quality, and of a reddish color; this is collected and kneaded with a little water into a cake, and forms the best charras, which is called surkha; more frequently the dirt that is shaken off is of a greenish tint, like the bhang itself, and this collected, forms 'bhangra charras.'" [*14]
The British government's interest in Bhang and Cannabis in India were incidental. These reports were published with an intent to maximize all Imperial and Colonial exploitation. Whether it was coal, spices, rubber, or cannabis, the British government was going to extract it at a terrible cost of human suffering. Child slavery, mass poverty, overflowing prisons, dictatorships and puppet governments -- essentially, an unchanged organization. But, while in the 1800's, the British government is still not yet quite apprehensive about drugs. Some of the researchers were amazingly sympathetic to the drug. To quote J.M. Campbell in his Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report, 1893-1894...
"To forbid or even seriously to restrict the use of so holy and gracious a herb as the hemp would cause widespread suffering and annoyance and to the large bands of worshiped ascetics deep-seated anger. It would rob the people of a solace in discomfort, of a cure in sickness, of a guardian whose gracious protection saves them from the attacks of evil influences, and whose mighty power makes the devotee of the Victorious, overcoming the demons of hunger and thirst, of panic fear, of the glamour of Maya or matter, and of madness, able in rest to brood on the Eternal, till the Eternal, possessing him body and soul, frees him from the having of self and receives him into the ocean of Being. These beliefs the Musalman [Muslim] devotee shares to the full. Like his Hindu brother the Musalman fakir reveres bhang as the lengthener of life, the freer from the bonds of self. Bhang brings union with the Divine Spirit. 'We drank bhang and the mystery I am He grew plain. So grand a result, so tiny a sin.'" [*15]
Image: Ancient painting of Arab lovers smoking Bhang,
By an Unknown Painter
Bhang, Ancient and Sacred
"Man will find that Nature is the only revelation, and that he, by his own efforts, must learn to read the stories told by star and cloud, by rock and soil, by sea and stream, by rain and fire, by plant and flower, by life in all its curious forms, and all the things and forces of the world."
--Robert Green Ingersoll, 1877
The use of Marijuana is certainly ancient on every continent populated by people. The phrase "Bhang" itself, though, is almost just as ancient. With something so pleasant and enlightening, to be discovered in a short life full of pain, was certainly something magical. Historian Martin Booth suggests that people in the Middle east brought Cannabis to India around 2000 BC, when the Indians gave it that name which was preserved through the ages: Bhang. It is more than three times as old as the English language -- not bad for a drug culture. The early religions naturally explained Marijuana with such glorious and supernatural stories, as Martin Booth explains...
"According to the Vedas, the four seminal books of the Hindu faith written in Vedic (early Sanskrit) about 1100 BC, the god Shiva brought cannabis down from the Himalayas for the pleasure of mankind. According to legend, cannabis was created when the gods stirred the heavenly oceans with the peak of Mount Mandara, possibly Mount Everest. A drop of celestial nectar, amrita, fell to earth and a hemp plant sprouted from the spot. It became the favorite drink of Indra, the Lord of Kings, and was subsequently consecrated to Shiva. When evil demons tried to acquire it, they were defeated, hence cannabis being also called vijaya meaning 'victory'." [*16]
The ancient Scythians were a culture that existed just between the kingdoms of India and those Russia, Europe, and the Middle east. They, too, have ancient reports of use of "Kannabis," as the Greeks reported, though they phrase "Bhang" was also used interchangeably To quote Herodotus, the historian from the 4th century BC...
"Scythians never wash any parts of their body except their heads, but then they fumigate themselves, and become intoxicated at the same time, in the following manner—they make holes in the ground in which they place heated stones, over these they erect a goat hair tent and when the people to be fumigated have crept inside, the tent is closed over, and hemp seeds are flung on the hot stones. They soon send forth a virulent intoxicating smoke which fills the closed tent, and the people inside being overpowered with the intoxicating effects, howl with excitement and delight." [*17]
In examining the ancient use of Bhang or Cannabis, one finds that there is a strong tie to religious and spiritual ideas. Within these, one can find even the use of Marijuana in treating diseases. It was believed that disease was caused by evil spirits, so when Bhang could cure disease, it was treated as a sacred gift of the gods for the benefit of humanity. To quote Albert Ellis, from Progress in Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 24, written in 1987...
"Cannabis oil and leaf juice were employed externally for various skin disease, wounds and even in leprosy. The topical antibiotic properties of cannabinoids as known today justify the use in appropriate skin diseases. Cannabis was also used against vomiting. This use was widespread in India as well.... None of the modern articles on the subject refers to the Chinese, the Indian or even the 19th century use and experience....
"Bhang was associated with rites required to clean away evil influences and offerings of bhang to the gods were made. Initially the medical properties of bhang were closely tied to religion. Fever was considered to be possession by the hot angry breath of the great gods Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. If the fever-stricken performed certain religious rites with bhang, the god Shiva was pleased, his breath cooled and the fever ceased." [*18]
The medical properties of Cannabis are a wide and vastly unexplored region. What little is known has been gained by criminals, whether lone scientists or entire cultures. The International Union for Conservation of Nature, an environmentalist organization, publishes a list of medicinal plants around the world. Some very interesting properties are listed underneath the 2000 entry for "BHANG (CANNABIS SATIVA)"...
"...used as tonic, intoxicant, stomachic, antispasmodic, analgesic, narcotic, sedative, and anodyne; used in to relieve pain, encourage sleep and to soothe restlessness. Resinous exudate is used as hashis. It is also given in diarrhoea, dysentry, and cholera." [*19]
The curious part of many of these different, medicinal properties is that there is no causal relationship. A person is sleepless largely because of restlessness in their mind, whereas Cholera is a bacterial infection, yet both people are commonly treated with the same drug: Bhang. It is the same drug given to patients who have the common flu to those with far more serious conditions like dysentry or leprosy. According to the Makhzan-ul-Adwiya, quoted in an earlier section, a wide number of names are given to the plant that produces Bhang: the Joy-Giver, the Sky-Flier, the Heavenly-Guide, the Poor Man's Heaven, the Soother of Grief, the Inebriating Leaf, Fakir's Grass, the Green Tent, and the Throne Giver. [*20] Much better than "pot" and "reefer."
"The enjoyment of beauty has a peculiar, mildly intoxicating quality of feeling. Beauty has no obvious use, nor is there any clear cultural necessity for it. Yet civilization could not do without it."
--Sigmund Freud, 1930
"Civilization and Its Discontents," Chapter 2
Our Next Bhanging Century
"It is said that bhang is one of the best of God's gifts, it is a cordial, a bile absorber, and an appetizer, and its moderate use prolongs life. It quickens the fancy, deepens thought and sharpens judgment."
--M. Husain Khan, ~1700's
"The poorer classes were compelled to puff their Bhang and sip their black coffee under a rainy sky," according to Burton, the translator of Arabian Nights, or more accurately, One Thousand and One Nights. In volume 10 of this book, we learn of ancient, Bhang smoking in Southern Africa; and in volume 5, we learn its potent varieties were known as "Flying Bhang." [*22] The phrase "Cannabis" or its translations were not used in this text of half-myth and half-history, though. However, in the Zend-Avesta, written by philosopher and mystic Zoroaster, we read of both the plant Cannabis and its product Bhang. Zoroaster listed Cannabis as one of the most important of over 10,000 medicinal plants, [*23] and according to his holybook, "...early Zoroastrian heroes Gustap and Ardu drink bhang in order to soul-travel to heaven and learn divine mysteries." [*24]
On July 29, 2005, Canadian police arrested Marc Emery for distribution of Cannabis seeds. He was shortly afterward extradited for the United States for criminal sentencing. These local authorities were not enforcing Canadian Law -- they were enforcing the domestic laws of the United States. [*25] While persecuted scholars receive attention about violation of human rights, drug activists are imprisoned and forgotten about. "Human rights" perhaps ought to be renamed to "Rights of popular humans."
Marc Emery is still serving time today for distributing Marijuana seeds, which was not a criminally investigatable offense (de-facto legal) in his home country. The United States government, if it were to attempt this policy in India, would find itself with more than a billion human beings to put into prison. Our politicians would surely be excited if it were an option to put a sixth or a seventh of the planet's population into camps. But today, marijuana consumption is so widespread in India, that it can occur openly and in the face of a hostile, international, anti-drug coalition of nations (the UN).
Even if they could arrest a million people today, and another million people tomorrow, could they imagine arresting ten million more, or a hundred million more? Could they possibly arrest and destroy thousands of years of culture based on peace, enlightenment, and cannabis intoxication? The philosophy of Marijuana has outlived every single empire and most of the major, world religions. For its magnificent contributions in passion and inspiration, it won't just be lifted out of civilized society with something as pathetic as a law -- just like the Pope couldn't stop the Renaissance by banning its authors. [*26] No matter what constraints are placed upon it, Marijuana culture is going to grow and survive; its strength will shatter asunder any constraints put upon it.
"...the Democratic man lives from day to day indulging the appetite of the hour; and sometimes he is lapped in drink and strains of the flute; then he becomes a water-drinker, and tries to get thin; then he takes a turn at gymnastics; sometimes idling and neglecting everything, then once more living the life of a philosopher; often he is busy with politics, and starts to his feet and says and does whatever comes into his head; and, if he is emulous of any one who is a warrior, off he is in that direction, or of men of business, once more in that. His life has neither law nor order; and this distracted existence he terms joy and bliss and freedom; and so he goes on."
--Plato, 360 BC
"The Republic," Book 8
*1. "Plant Resins: Chemistry, Evolution, Ecology, and Ethnobotany," by Jean H. Langenheim, Publisher: Timber Press, Incorporated (April 1, 2003); ISBN-10: 0881925748; ISBN-13: 978-0881925746; page 291; GoogleBooks Link.
*2. "Tradition of Bhang," by the Society for the Confluence of Festivals in India, (SCFI), website: holifestival.org; HoliFestival.org Link.
*3. Encyclopedia Britannica, Entry: Bhang, Britannica Link.
*4. "Tradition of Bhang," by the Society for the Confluence of Festivals in India, (SCFI), website: holifestival.org; HoliFestival.org Link.
*5. "Encyclopaedia of India Pakistan & Bangladesh," by Gupta Om, Publisher: Isha Books (June 27, 2006), ISBN-10: 8182053897, ISBN-13: 978-8182053892, pages 334-335; GoogleBooks Link.
*6. "Economic Botany," by Meenu Pooja, Publisher: Discovery Publishing House (August 1, 2008), ISBN-10: 8171419569, ISBN-13: 978-8171419562; page 198; GoogleBooks Link.
*7. "The A-Z Encyclopedia of Alcohol and Drug Abuse," by Thomas Nordegren, Publisher: Brown Walker Press (FL) (March 2002), ISBN-10: 158112404X, ISBN-13: 978-1581124040; page 118; GoogleBooks Link.
*8. "Drug Abuse Among Working Children," by Vimala Veeraraghavan, pages 36-37, Publisher: Northern Book Centre; 1 edition (July 1, 1998), ISBN-10: 8172110901, ISBN-13: 978-8172110901; page 35; GoogleBooks Link.
*9. Parents: The Anti-Drug webpage, Section: "Association Partners," TheAntiDrug.com.
*10. "'Bhang' to trigger new patent war?" by Chidanand Rajghatta, TNN, Aug 9, 2010, publisher: The Times of India; IndiaTimes.com.
*11. The Makhzan-al-Adwiya, or simply "The Makhzan." Quoted from "American Druggist," July 1884, Volume 13, page 122; GoogleBooks Link.
*12. The Makhzan-al-Adwiya, or simply "The Makhzan." Quoted from "American Druggist," July 1884, Volume 13, page 122; GoogleBooks Link.
*13. "Hooker's Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany," by Sir William Jackson Hooker, Volume 6, London: Lovell Reeve, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, 1854; page 278; GoogleBooks Link.
*14. "Hand-Book of the Economic Products of the Punjab," by Baden H. Powell, Vol. 1: Economic Raw Produce, Prepared Under Orders of the Government, printed at the Thomason Civil Engineering College Press, 1868; page 292; GoogleBooks Link.
*15. "Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report, 1893-1894," by J.M. Campbell, quoted in "Cannabinoids as Therapeutics," by Raphael Mechoulam, Publisher: Birkhäuser Basel; 1 edition (September 7, 2005), ISBN-10: 3764370556, ISBN-13: 978-3764370558; page 17; GoogleBooks Link.
*16. "Cannabis: A History," by Martin Booth, 2003, publisher: Picador Reading Group Guides, page 24; GoogleBooks Link.
*17. Quoted in "Hand-Book of the Economic Products of the Punjab," by Baden H. Powell, Vol. 1: Economic Raw Produce, Prepared Under Orders of the Government, printed at the Thomason Civil Engineering College Press, 1868; page 292; GoogleBooks Link.
*18. "Progress in Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 24," by Albert Ellis, Publisher: Elsevier Science; 1 edition (January 15, 1987); ISBN-10: 0444808760; ISBN-13: 978-0444808769; page 162; GoogleBooks Link.
*19. "National Register of Medicinal Plants," by IUCN Nepal, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Nepal. Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, 2000; ISBN-10: 9291440485; ISBN-13: 978-9291440481; page 23; GoogleBooks Link.
*20. Quoted from "Cannabinoids as Therapeutics," by Raphael Mechoulam, Publisher: Birkhäuser Basel; 1 edition (September 7, 2005); ISBN-10: 3764370556; ISBN-13: 978-3764370558; page 6; GoogleBooks Link.
*21. Quoted from "Cannabinoids as Therapeutics," by Raphael Mechoulam, Publisher: Birkhäuser Basel; 1 edition (September 7, 2005), ISBN-10: 3764370556, ISBN-13: 978-3764370558; page 6; GoogleBooks Link.
*22. "Origin and History of All The Pharmacopeial Vegetable Drugs, Chemicals and Preparation, with Bibliography: Volume I: Vegetable Drugs," by John Uri Lloyd, 8th and 9th Decennial Revisions, Publisher: American Drug Manufacturers' Association, Washington, D.C., 1921, pages 41-42; GoogleBooks Link.
*23. "Cannabis: A History," by Martin Booth, 2003, publisher: Picador Reading Group Guides, page 24; GoogleBooks Link.
*24. "The Great Book of Hemp: The Complete Guide to the Environmental, Commercial, and Medicinal Uses of the World's Most Extraordinary Plant," by Rowan Robinson, Publisher: Park Street Press; annotated edition edition (November 1, 1995); ISBN-10: 0892815418; ISBN-13: 978-0892815418; page 68; GoogleBooks Link.
*25. "Canada: This Johnny Appleseed Is Wanted by the Law," Source: New York Times (NY); Author: Clifford Krauss; Pubdate: Sat, 13 Aug 2005; MapInc.org Link.
*26. "Index Librorum Prohibitorum," by Pope Paul IV, 1559.